Recently in benchmarking Category

I'm going over some of my older posts and am reposting some of the good stuff that's still relevant. I've been at this a while, so there is a good week's worth of good essays hiding in the archives.
Shortly after the release of Novell OES SP1, the version of Open Enterprise Server based on SuSE Linux 9, I ran a benchmark series to determine just how it would hold up in our environment. The results were pretty clear: not that good. I re-ran some of the tests with later versions and it got a lot better. SP2 improved things significantly, and has gotten even better with OES2 (based on SLES10).

The long and short of it is that the 32-bit Linux kernel has some design constraints that simply prevented Novell from designing a NetWare-equivalent system when it came to NCP performance. The 64-bit kernel that came with OES2 helped a lot. Also, more intelligent assumptions about usage.

Our big problem was concurrency. Our cluster nodes regularly ran between 2000-6000 concurrent connections. Anyway, for details about what I found, read the series:

Benchmark Results Summary

It has pictures. Oooo!

DataProtector 6.00 vs 6.10

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A new version of HP DataProtector is out. One of the nicest new features is that they've greatly optimized the object/session copy speeds.

No matter what you do for a copy, DataProtector will have to read all of one Disk Media (50GB by default) to do the copy. So if you multiplex 6 backups into one Disk Writer device, it'll have to look through the entire media for the slices it needs. If you're doing a session copy, it'll copy the whole session. But object copies have to be demuxed.

DP6.00 did not handle this well. Consistently, each Data Reader device consumed 100% of one CPU for a speed of about 300 MB/Minute. This blows serious chunks, and is completely unworkable for any data-migration policy framework that takes the initial backup to disk, then spools the backup to tape during daytime hours.

DP6.10 does this a lot better. CPU usage is a lot lower, it no longer pegs one CPU at 100%. Also, network speeds vary between 10-40% of GigE speeds (750 to 3000 MB/Minute), which is vastly more reasonable. DP6.10, unlike DP6.00, can actually be used for data migration policies.
Today I reconfigured the MSA1500 to run in Active/Active mode. While there, I also rearranged our disk arrays. We have 41, 500GB, 7.2K RPM drives in there. I created two, 20 disk Arrays, and filled each array with Raid 0+1 LUNs. This yielded 9TB of useful space. That extra drive will stay extra until we get an odd number of new drives.

Yes, a profligate waste of space but at least it'll be fast. It also had the added advantage of not needing to stripe in like Raid5 or Raid6 would have. This alone saved us close to two weeks flow time to get it back into service.

Another benefit to not using a parity RAID is that the MSA is no longer controller-CPU bound for I/O speeds. Right now I have a pair of writes, each effectively going to a separate controller, and the combined I/O is on the order of 100Mbs while controller CPU loads are under 80%. Also, more importantly, Average Command Latency is still in the 20-30ms range.

The limiting factor here appears to be how fast the controllers can commit I/O to the physical drives, rather than how fast the controllers can do parity-calcs. CPU not being saturated suggests this, but a "show perf physical" on the CLI shows the queue depth on individual drives:
Queue depth chart
The drives with a zero are associated with LUNs being served by the other controller, and thus not listed here. But a high queue depth is a good sign of I/O saturation on the actual drives themselves. This is encouraging to me, since it means we're finally, finally, after two years, getting the performance we need out of this device. We had to go to an active/active config with a non-parity RAID to do it, but we got it.

EVA4400 + FATA

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Some edited excerpts of internal reports I've generated over the last (looks at watch) week. The referenced testing operations involve either a single stream of writes, or two streams of writes in various configurations:
Key points I've learned:
  • The I/O controllers in the 4400 are able to efficiently handle more data than a single host can throw at it.
  • The FATA drives introduce enough I/O bottlenecks that multiple disk-groups yield greater gains than a single big disk-group.
  • Restripe operations do not cause anywhere near the problems they did on the MSA1500.
  • The 4400 should not block-on-write the way the MSA did, so the NetWare cluster can have clustered volumes on it.
The "Same LUN" test showed that Write speeds are about half that of the single threaded test, which gives about equal total throughput to disk. The Read speeds are roughly comperable, giving a small net increase in total throughput from disk. Again, not sure why. The Random Read tests continue to perform very poorly, though total throughput in parallel is better than the single threaded test.

The "Different LUN, same disk-group," test showed similar results to the "Same LUN" test in that Write speeds were about half of single threaded yielding a total Write throughput that closely matches single-threaded. Read speeds saw a difference, with significant increases in Read throughput (about 25%). The Random Read test also saw significant increases in throughput, about 37%, but still is uncomfortably small at a net throughput of 11 MB/s.

The "Different LUN, different disk-group," test did show some I/O contention. For Write speeds, the two writers showed speeds that were 67% and 75% of the single-threaded speeds, yet showed a total throughput to disk of 174 MB/s. Compare that with the fasted single-threaded Write speed of 130 MB/s. Read performance was similar, with the two readers showing speeds that were 90% and 115% of the single-threaded performance. This gave an aggregate throughput of 133 MB/s, which is significantly faster than the 113 MB/s turned in by the fastest Reader test.

Adding disks to a disk-group appears to not significantly impact Write speeds, but significantly impact Read speeds. The Read speed dropped from 28 MB/s to 15 MB/s. Again, a backup-to-disk operation wouldn't notice this sort of activity. The Random Read test showed a similar reduction in performance. As Write speeds were not affected by restripe, the sort of cluster hard-locks we saw with the MSA1500 on the NetWare cluster will not occur with the EVA4400.

And finally, a word about controller CPU usage. In all of my testing I've yet to saturate a controller, even during restripe operations. It was the restripe ops that killed the MSA, and the EVA doesn't seem to block nearly as hard. Yes, read performance is dinged, but not nearly to the levels that the MSA does. This is because the EVA keeps its cache enabled during restripe-ops, unlike the MSA.
One thing I alluded to in the above is that Random Read performance is rather bad. And yes, it is. Unfortunately, I don't yet know if this is a feature of testing methodology or what, but it is worrysome enough that I'm figuring it into planning. The fastest random-read speed turned in for a 10GB file, 64KB nibbles, came to around 11 MB/s. This was on a 32-disk disk-group on a Raid5 vdisk. Random Read is the test that closest approximates file-server or database loads, so it is important.

HP has done an excellent job tuning the caches for the EVA4400, which makes Write performance exceed Read performance in most cases. Unfortunately, you can't do the same reordering optimization tricks for Read access that you can for Writes, so Random Read is something of a worst-case scenario for these sorts of disks. HP's own documentation says that FATA drives should not be used for 'online' access such as file-servers or transactional databases. And it turns out they really meant that!

That said, these drives sequential write performance is excellent, making them very good candidates for Backup-to-Disk loads so long as fragmentation is constrained. The EVA4400 is what we really wanted two years ago, instead of the MSA1500.

Still no word on whether we're upgrading the EVA3000 to a EVA6100 this weekend, or next weekend. We should know by end-of-business today.

EVA4400 testing

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Right before I left Friday I started a test on the EVA4400 with a 100GB file. This is the same file-size I configured DataProtector to use for the backup-to-disk files, so it's a good test size.

Sequential Write speed: 79,065 KB/s
Sequential Read speed: 52,107 KB/s

That's a VERY good number. The Write speed above is about the same speed as I got on the MSA1500 when running against a Raid0 volume, and this is a Raid5 volume on the 4400. The 10GB file-size test I did before this one I also watched the EVA performance on the monitoring server, and controller CPU during that time was 15-20% max. Also, it really used both controllers (thanks to MPIO).

Random Write speed: 46,427 KB/s
Random Read speed: 3,721 KB/s

Now we see why HP strongly recommends against using FATA drives for random I/O. For a file server that's 80% read I/O, it would be a very poor choice. This particular random-read test is worst-case, since a 100GB file can't be cached in RAM so this represents pure array performance. File-level caching on the server itself would greatly improve performance. The same test with a 512MB file turns in a random read number of 1,633,538 KB/s which represents serving the whole test in cache-RAM on the testing station itself.

This does suggest a few other tests:
  • As above, but two 100MB files at the same time on the same LUN
  • As above, but two 100MB files at the same time on different LUNs in the same Disk Group
  • As above, but two 100MB files at the same time on different LUNs in different Disk Groups

Storage update

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Both the EVA4400 and the EVA6100 parts arrived late Wednesday. Wednesday I got the EVA4400 partially unboxed, and finished it up Thursday. Got CommandView upgraded so we could manage the EVA4400, and thus lost licensing for the EVA3000. The 10/26 expiry date for that license is no problem, as the EVA3000 will become an EVA6100 well before then. Next weekend if the stars align right.

And today we schlepped the whole EVA4400 to the Bond Hall datacenter.

And now I'm pounding the crap out of it to make sure it won't melt under the load we intend to put on it. These are FATA disks, which we've never used so we need to figure it out. We're not as concerned with the 6100 since that's FC disks, and they've been serving us just fine for years.

Also on the testing list, making sure MPIO works the way we expect it to.

NetWare and Xen

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Here is something I didn't really know about in virtualized NetWare:

Guidelines for using NSS in a virtual environment

Towards the bottom of this document, you get this:

Configuring Write Barrier Behavior for NetWare in a Guest Environment

Write barriers are needed for controlling I/O behavior when writing to SATA and ATA/IDE devices and disk images via the Xen I/O drivers from a guest NetWare server. This is not an issue when NetWare is handling the I/O directly on a physical server.

The XenBlk Barriers parameter for the SET command controls the behavior of XenBlk Disk I/O when NetWare is running in a virtual environment. The setting appears in the Disk category when you issue the SET command in the NetWare server console.

Valid settings for the XenBlk Barriers parameter are integer values from 0 (turn off write barriers) to 255, with a default value of 16. A non-zero value specifies the depth of the driver queue, and also controls how often a write barrier is inserted into the I/O stream. A value of 0 turns off XenBlk Barriers.

A value of 0 (no barriers) is the best setting to use when the virtual disks assigned to the guest server’s virtual machine are based on physical SCSI, Fibre Channel, or iSCSI disks (or partitions on those physical disk types) on the host server. In this configuration, disk I/O is handled so that data is not exposed to corruption in the event of power failure or host crash, so the XenBlk Barriers are not needed. If the write barriers are set to zero, disk I/O performance is noticeably improved.

Other disk types such as SATA and ATA/IDE can leave disk I/O exposed to corruption in the event of power failure or a host crash, and should use a non-zero setting for the XenBlk Barriers parameter. Non-zero settings should also be used for XenBlk Barriers when writing to Xen LVM-backed disk images and Xen file-backed disk images, regardless of the physical disk type used to store the disk images.

Nice stuff there! The "xenblk barriers" can also have an impact on the performance of your virtualized NetWare server. If your I/O stream runs the server out of cache, performance can really suffer if barriers are non-zero. If it fits in cache, the server can reorder the I/O stream to the disks to the point that you don't notice the performance hit.

So, keep in mind where your disk files are! If you're using one huge XFS partition and hosting all the disks for your VM-NW systems on that, then you'll need barriers. If you're presenting a SAN LUN directly to the VM, then you'll need to "SET XENBLK BARRIERS = 0", as they're set to 16 by default. This'll give you better performance.

Concurrency, again

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I performed another test on Friday for concurrency. I had 9 workstations performing an iozone througput test. Each machine ran 20 threads each processing against a 15MB file, for a total working set size of 2.7GB which fits into the server's RAM. The results from the workstations were pretty consistant. The workstations had all of 384MB of RAM in them, and the number of IOZone threads running caused significant page-faulting to occur. Which has the side effect of minimizing client-side caching. The workstations were connected to the core by way of 100MB ethernet, so maximum theoretical speeds are 12.5MB/s.

Some typical results, units are in KB/s

Initial write
11058.47
Rewrite
11457.83
Read
5896.23
Re-read
5844.52
Reverse Read
6395.33
Stride read
5988.33
Random read
6761.84
Mixed workload
8713.86
Random write
7279.35

Consistantly, write performance is better than read performance. On the tests that are greatly benefitted by caching, reverse read and stride read, performance was quite acceptable. All nine machines wrote at near flank speed for 100MB ethernet, which means that the 1GB link the server was plugged in to was doing quite a bit of work during the Initial Write stage.

What is perhaps the most encouraging is that CPU loading on the server itself stayed below the saturation level. Having spoken with some of the engineers who write this stuff, this is not surprising. They've spent a lot of effort in making sure that incoming requests can be fulfilled from cache and not go to disk. Going to disk is more expensive in Linux than in NetWare due to architectural reasons. Had the working set been 4GB or larger I strongly suspect that CPU loading would have been significantly higher. Unfortunately, as school is back in session I can't 'borrow' that lab right now as the tests themselves consume 100% of the resources on the workstations. Students would notice that.

The next step for me is to see if I can figure out how large the 'working set' of open files on FacShare is. If it's much bigger than, say, 3.2GB we're going to need new hardware to make OES work for us. This won't be easy. A majority of the size of the open files are outlook archives (.PST files) for Facilities Management. PST files are low performance critters, so I don't care if they're slow. I do care about things like access databases, though, so figuring out what my 'active set' actually is will take some figuring.

Long story short: With OES2 and 64 bit hardware, I bet I could actually use a machine with 18GB of RAM!

Why cache is good

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One of my post-brainshare tasks is to rebenchmark some OES performance. I did a benchmark series back in September and the results there weren't terribly encouraging. I learned at BrainShare that a mid-December NCPSERV patch fixed a lot of performance issues, and I should rerun my tests. Okay, I can do that.

One test I did underlines the need to tune your cache correctly. Using the same iozone tool I've used in the past, I ran the throughput test with multiple threads. Three tests:

20 threads processing against a separate 100MB file (2GB working set)
40 threads processing against a separate 100MB file (4GB working set)
20 threads processing against a separate 200MB file (4GB working set)

The server I'm playing with is the same one I used in September. It is running OES SP2, patched as of a few days ago. 4GB of RAM, and 2x 2.8 P4 CPU's. The data volume is on the EVA 3000 on a Raid0 partition. I'm testing OES througput not the parity performance of my array. Due to PCI memory, effective memory is 3.2GB. Anyway, the very good table:
                        20x100M        40x100M        20x200M
Initial write 12727.29193 12282.03964 12348.50116
Rewrite 11469.85657 10892.61572 11036.0224
Read 17299.73822 11653.8652 12590.91534
Re-read 15487.54584 13218.80331 11825.04736
Reverse Read 17340.01892 2226.158993 1603.999649
Stride read 16405.58679 1200.556759 1507.770897
Random read 17039.8241 1671.739376 1749.024651
Mixed workload 10984.80847 6207.907829 6852.934509
Random write 7289.342926 6792.321884 6894.767334
The 2GB dataset fit inside of memory. You can see the performance boost that provides on each of the Read tests. It is especially significant on the tests designed to bust read-ahead optimization such as Reverse Read, Stride Read, and Random Read. The Mixed Workload test showed it as well.

One thing that has me scratching my head is why Stride Read is so horrible with the 4GB data-sets. By my measure about 2.8GB of RAM should be available for caching, so most of the dataset should fit into cache and therefore turn in the fast numbers. Clearly, something else is happening.

Anyway, that is why you want to have a high cache-hit percentage on your NSS cache. This is also why 64-bit memory will help you if you have very large working sets of data that your users are playing on, and we're getting to the level where 64-bit will help. And will help even though OES NCP doesn't scale quite as far as we'd like it to. That's the overall question I'm trying to answer here.

BrainShare done

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I'm back at work. BrainShare was a blast, as usual. Learned a lot. Spent most of the day dumping what I learned, and will be spending the rest of the week working on things I learned about last week. Like a new benchmark series with OES with the mid-December NCP patch. I want to see if that changed anything.

Also next week when class is back in I need to analyze our I/O patterns on WUF to better design a test for OES. I need to know FOR SURE if OES-Linux is up to the task of handling 5000 concurrent connections the way we do it. The last series suggested it, but I need more details.

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